| Jhonghua Minguo|
Republic of China
|Flag||Coat of arms|
National Anthem of the Republic of China!
|Capital and Largest city||Taipei|
- Vice President
| Semi-presidential System|
- Start of Revolution
- Republic established
- Relocated to Taiwan
|Xinhai Revolution |
October 10, 1911
January 1, 1912
December 7, 1949
- Water (%)
13,975 sq mi
- July 2008 est.
- Per capita
|Currency|| New Taiwan Dollar (|
|Time zone||CST (UTC +8)|
The Republic of China is a defacto country in East Asia that has evolved from a single-party state with full global recognition into a multi-party democratic state with limited international recognition. It was a founding member of the United Nations. Established in 1912, the Republic of China encompassed much of mainland China. In 1945 at the end of World War II the Republic of China added the island groups of Taiwan (Formosa) and the Pescadores to its authority. These island groups, together with Kinmen and Matsu, became the full extent of the Republic of China's authority after 1949 when the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Chinese Communist Party and the People's Republic of China (PRC) was founded in mainland China. Under ROC law, these areas are known as the Free Area of the Republic of China.
Although the Republic of China has governed only Taiwan and outlying islands since 1949, during the early Cold War the ROC was recognized by most Western nations and the United Nations as the sole legitimate government of China. During the 1970s, the ROC began to lose these recognitions in favor of the People's Republic of China. The Republic of China has not formally relinquished its claim as the legitimate government of all China. Both Presidents Lee Teng-hui and Chen Shui-bian have held the view that it is a sovereign and independent country separate from mainland China and there is no need for a formal declaration of independence.
During the 1950s and 1960s, it was common to refer to the Republic of China as Nationalist China or Free China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has been commonly referred to as "Taiwan". Since the late 1970s the name "China" is commonly used to refer to the People's Republic of China. Because of diplomatic pressure from the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China is referred to as "Chinese Taipei" in most international organizations. The capital city is Taipei.
The Republic of China was established in 1912, replacing the Qing Dynasty and ending over two thousand years of imperial rule in China. It is the oldest surviving republic in East Asia. The Republic of China on mainland China went through periods of warlordism, Japanese invasion, civil war between the Kuomintang and the Communists. The Republic of China on Taiwan has experienced rapid economic growth and industrialization, and democratization.
Starting in 1928, the Republic of China was ruled by the Kuomintang as an authoritarian one-party state. In the 1950s and 1960s, the KMT went through wide restructuring and decreased corruption and implemented land reform. There followed a period of great economic growth, the Republic of China became one of the Four Asian Tigers, despite the constant threat of war and civil unrest. In the 1980s and 1990s the government peacefully transitioned to a democratic system, with the first direct presidential election in 1996 and the 2000 election of Chen Shui-bian, the first non-KMT after 1949 to become President of the Republic of China. The KMT regained presidency and increased its majority in the legislature in the 2008 presidential and legislative elections.
The territories below constitute the territories that are under the de facto government of the Republic of China. These are referred to by the Government of the Republic of China as the "Free Area of the Republic of China".
These territories consist of:
- Matsu Islands
The territory currently ruled from Beijing by the Communist government has no special legal name in the Republic of China, but various terms have been used since 1949 including:
- Insurrectionist provinces
- Mainland area (currently preferred)
Hong Kong and Macau are not regarded as part of the mainland area, and are simply called "Hong Kong area", and "Macau area" respectively. The Republic of Chine does not recognise the handover arrangements of Hong Kong and Macau.
The Republic of China has a five branch government, two branchs of which are democratically elected. Between 1949, and the early 1990's the Republic of China was ruled by the Kuomintang under martial law.
President of the Republic of ChinaEdit
The head of state is the President, who is elected by popular vote for a four-year term on the same ticket as the Vice-President. The President has authority over the five administrative branches (Yuan): the Control, Examination, Executive, Judicial, and Legislative Yuans. The President appoints the members of the Executive Yuan as his cabinet, including a Premier, who is officially the President of the Executive Yuan; members are responsible for policy and administration.
The Executive Yuan is the executive branch of the Government of the Republic of China. It is led by the Premier, and has eight Ministers.
The Ministries are as follows:
- Foreign Affairs
- National Defense
- Economic Affairs
- Transportation and Communications
Empowered by various laws, or even the Constitution, under the Executive Yuan several individual boards are formed to enforce different executive functions of the government. Unless regulated otherwise, the chairs are appointed by and answer to the Premier. The committee members of the boards are usually (a) governmental officials for the purpose of interdepartmental coordination and cooperation; or (b) creditable professionals for their reputation and independence.
The main legislative body is the unicameral Legislative Yuan with two hundred and twenty-five seats. One hundred and sixty-eight are elected by popular vote; forty-one are elected based on the proportion of nationwide votes received by participating political parties. Eight are elected from overseas Chinese constituencies and eight are for the aboriginal populations based on the same principle. Members serve three-year terms
The Judicial Yuan is the highest judicial organ in the Republic of China. Its Justices of the Constitutional Court, with 15 members, is charged with interpreting the Constitution. The President and Vice President of the Judicial Yuan are chosen from among the Honorable Justice by the President. Eight of the grand justices, including the president and vice president of the Judicial Yuan, serve four-year terms, and the remaining Honorable Justices serve eight-year terms.
The Judicial Yuan also supervises the lower courts, which consist of the Supreme Court, the high courts, district courts, the Administrative Court, and the Commission on the Disciplinary Sanctions of Public Functionaries.
District courts hear cases of the first instance, high courts hear appeals, and the Supreme Court is the final court of appeal. High courts are courts of first instance only for cases in which rebellion, treason, and offenses against friendly relations with other nations are alleged. The Supreme Court does not hear constitutional cases.
The Control Yuan is responsible for auditing the Government.
The Examination Yuan is responsible for the qualification of civil servants, and members of the Foreign Service. It is also responsible for administering the salaries and benefits of civil servants, and the civil service pension scheme. It also controls the "Administrative Appeals Tribunal", in which people may dispute decisions made by the government which affect them personally.
- Kuomintang (in Government)
- Pan-Blue Coalition
- People First Party
- New Party
- Pan-Green Coalition
- Democratic Progressive Party
- Taiwan Solidarity Union
- Taiwan Independence Party
- Communist Party of Taiwan
- Social Democratic Party of China
- Libertarian Party of China and Taiwan
- Taiwan Socialist Party
- Tawian Christian Democratic Party
- Taiwan Youth Party
- Green Party Taiwan
- Peasant Party
- Civil Party
- Communist Party of China (Mainland Government Party)
- Communist Party of China (post-1949)
It must be noted that the CPC has shown little interest in introducing the CPC to Taiwan, except through military conquest by the PLA. It is believed that this is because any attempt by the CPC to use the ROC's democratic and constitutional processes to gain power requires recognition of those processes.
The Republic of China has a dynamic, capitalist economy. It has a massive trade surplus, a high degree of industrialisation, low inflation, low unemployment, and massive foreign reserves. Interestingly, while most countries with large foreign currency reserves gained them through exploitation of natural resources, the Republic of China gained its massive foreign reserves through trade.
A successful program of land reform carried out during the 1950's supported the development of agriculture on Taiwan. Open trade policies allowed Taiwan to gain the capital required to industrialise.
Taiwan's economy is built on world trade. Taiwan, as an independent economy, became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) as Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu ("Chinese Taipei") in January 2002.
Taiwan is the world's largest supplier of contract computer chip manufacturing (foundry services) and is a leading LCD panel manufacturer, DRAM computer memory, networking equipment, and consumer electronics designer and manufacturer. Textile production, though of declining importance as Taiwan loses its competitive advantage in labor-intensive markets, is another major industrial export sector. Imports are dominated by raw materials and capital goods, which account for more than 90% of the total. Taiwan imports most of its energy needs.
Russia, Vietnam, the US, Western Canada, Sonora, and the UK are the Republic of China's largest trading partners. Taiwan's oil comes from the Middle East, and Vietnam. Russia supplies natural gas, while uranium is supplied by Australia, Niger, and the Congo.
The service sector of Taiwan's economy has been increasing, with international tourism becoming increasingly important to Taiwan.
Taiwan's arable land is extensively cultivated, and the country is self-sufficient in rice, though Taiwan imports wheat. Rising living standards are reflected in increased production and consumption of meat.